Selasa, 29 Maret 2011



-           Organic materials: includes all the ingredients come from plant and animal tissues, both living and dead who, in various tahana (stage) decomposition (Millar, 1955)
- Organic matter soil: pd refers more material (waste plant tissues / animal) which has undergone renovation / decomposition either in part / whole, which has undergone humifikasi or who have not.
- Kononova (1966) and Schnitzer (1978) divide soil organic matter into 2 groups, namely: material Wherever terhumifikasi reply, which referred to as humic substances (humic substances) and substances that do not terhumifikasi, which is not referred to as humic substances (non-humic substances)
- First Aid Kelomp known as "humus" which is an HSL end of the process of decomposition of organic materials are stable and resistant against bio-degradation process (Tan, 1982). Consisting of humic acid fractions, fulfat acid and humin. Humus bag set 90% organic matter soil (Thompson & Troeh, 1978)
- Kelomp both include organic compounds such as carbohydrates, as acids, peptides, fats, waxes, lignin, nucleic acids, proteins.
- Organic matter in soil is a dynamic condition as a result of soil microorganisms which use them as sources of energy and carbon.
- Content of soil organic matter is mainly determined by the equilibrium between the rate pelonggokan with the rate of decomposition (Pal & Clark, 1989).
- Content of soil organic matter is very diverse, ranging from ant 0.5% - 5.0% on mineral soils or even up to 100% in organic tana (histosols) (Bohn, 1979).
- Factors affecting kand BO tnh are: climate, vegetation, topography, time, parent material and cropping (cropping).
- The distribution of vegetation is closely related to dg dr questionnaire was developed specific patterns of temperature and rainfall. Pd CH wil distinguished low, vegetation mk jg jg rarely allows for the accumulation of low-BO. Pd wil reply cold temperatures, low jg mk keg mikroroganisme allows for slow decomposition process.
- If there pelonggokan rate exceeds the rate of decomposition of organic materials, especially pd area with water-saturated conditions and low temperatures, mk organic matter content will increase with the level of decomposition depression
- Characteristics and soil organic matter content is an important feature of the soil, soil BO krn affect soil properties through a variety of ways.
- The reform of the organic material capable of facilitating the BO pelapka bahan2 mineal land; questionnaire was developed (distribution) of organic material in soil Dlm effect against separation (differentiation) horizon.
- The process of reform of the organic material is the initial mechanism which then determines the function and role of organic matter in Dlm tsb ground.

Stevenson (1982) presents the decomposition process BO dg following sequence:
1. Phase renovation of fresh organic material. This process will change the size of a small LBH.
2. Continued renovation phase, which involves the enzymes microorganisms tnh keg. This phase is divided lg sed bbrp tahana:
a. tahana beginning: characterized by kehil scr dial-BHN BHN distinguished easily decomposed as a result pembafaatan BO as a source of carbon and energy by mo tnh, especially bacteria. Dihslkan sejmlh seny side (by products) such as: NH3, H2S, CO2, etc. as organic.
b. Tahana middle: terbent organic seny middle / between (intermediate products) and new biomass cell organisms)
c. Tahana end: characterized by the gradual decomposition scr bag TNM network / LBH animals who are resistant (eg, lignin). The role of fungi and Actinomycetes pd is very dominant tahana
3. Revamp and re-phase synthesis of organic senyawa2 (humifikasi) which will form humus.


- BO effect in Dlm tnh include gatra2 (aspect), soil genesis and fertility.
- The effect of short-term retrievable and long term. Effect of short-term bahan2 mainly played by non-humus (non-humified materials), whereas long-term effect is given by the humus material. Both the influence they will be interchangeable improve plant growth.
- Availability of land Dlm BO also means availability of carbon and energy source of microorganisms tnh bg yg very dominant role Dlm BO overhaul process.
- Through the process of mineralization, BO is able to provide unsur2 bg plant nutrients, especially: N, P, S and unsur2 micro nutrients.
- BO plays a major role Dlm pembent agragat and a good soil structure, allows for indirect scr will improve soil physical conditions, and pd gilirannnya will facilitate the penetration of water, water absorption, root development, and increase the resistance against erosion
- BO jg able meningk Commission and the soil buffering capacity, fototosisitas, keterlindian (leachability), and biodegradation of pesticides in soil Dlm.
- BO jg dg retrievable form complexes unsur2 allows for interchangeable prevent micro nutrient loss through leaching, and reduce the incidence of poisoning micro-nutrients. BO P yg jg able to release embeddable by oksida2 (Fe, Al) in the soil (Sanchez, 1976)
- Temperature and humidity will spur alihrupa eminence minerals, and the effect it will be magnified by the presence of organic substances.
- Kand BO plng tnh an important criterion to characterize and establish batas2 an epipedon. BO Kand determine the horizon as organic or not.
- Bbrp epipedon that use BO as a main distinguishing feature adl: epipedon histik, Molik, umbrik and okrik. BO is very vital role Dlm spodik genesis horizon.

Revamp organic materials
- The remains of plants and animals have Dlm reforms or on the ground pd condition2 different.
- The speed of reform and the final form depends KPD hsl2 temperature, moisture, air, chemical and microbial BHN.
- Smakin high temperature (up to 40oC) will smakin speed up reforms. This is SLH 1 reason that the land has superior low BO kand.
- Moisture is required for biological scr reshuffle, but the water which is causing excessive famine (lack of) air and consequently will memperlamat reshuffle.
- Availability bhn2 needful as chemical nutrients (especially N) for microbial determine the speed of reforms and the influence which was formed against the type of humus.
- BO waved at Dlm ground faster than Dlm fertile soil which distinguished thin.
- Order komponen2 BO land reform are:
1. Sugar, starch, water soluble protein2 reply
2. Crude protein
3. Hemicelulose
4. Cellulose
5. Oil, fat, lignin, wax
- The speed of reforms in keeping with the BO decreases the time and the achievement of a humus-like chemical composition which is considered as one of the mid-renovation.
- BO reshuffle in Dlm tnh adl merup a Matchless same digestive process digestive dg BO in Dlm belly of the beast. A large amount of oxygen needed to overhaul the BO tsb. Oxidation BO rapidly plng Dlm plng soil surface and soil slowly in Dlm lap subordinates, terut jk is incompressible and wet soil.
- Event typical: shrinkage and amblesnya Muck (reaching 2-5 cm / yr in Florida) and turf (peat) after being processed, krn Dlm developing a high ground water conditions allows for inhibiting reform. Need draenase and improved aeration, allows for accelerated reform interchangeable.
Humus: a complex mixture of compounds (composed by humic acid, as fulfat, ligno proteins etc.), have the nature rather / fairly resistant (resistance) against the reform of micro-organisms (microorganisms), are amorphous (not having a specific shape), brown-black , are colloidal (<1 μm, charge) and comes from the process humifikasi organic matter by soil microbes.

Effect of humus (BO) sifat2 against the ground:

1. Effect of physical scr:
a. LBH ground color becomes darker. Brown-black: raise the temperature.
b. Increasing aggregation (granulation land) and urobilitas agragat, aeration (penghawaan) good LBH, draenasi perembihan, release) good LBH, LBH resistant against erosion
c. Reduce pd plasticity clay (clay-clay), soil easily processed Legal Aid (LBH loose)
d. Raising the ability of binding / save water
2. Effect of chemical scr:
a. Raising the KPK. (Humus has KPK> 200 me/100 gr.
b. SLH Merup one source of nutrients (essential Dlm cycle / cycle nutrients)
c. Merup reserve major nutrients N, P, S Dlm bent organic and micro nutrient elements (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, B, Mo, Ca) in the bent chelate (chelate) and will be released slowly scr.
d. Increasing the activity, the number and population of soil micro-and macro-organisms (O merup energy sources / mknan) (bacteria, fungi, Actinomycetes, worms, insects, etc.)

1 komentar:

  1. keren sih....
    tapi kurang banyak.
    kok artikelnya cuma 5?

    ayo dong!!.... hutan harus tetap lestari.